Specialist Course

The specialist course is about six weeks long and is designed to train fellows in their area of specialization. After the core course the fellows are split up in groups according their area of specialization. Fellows receive three to five lectures per day and assignments and exercises in the afternoons to work on. Visits to plants and companies are an important part in the specialist training. During the specialist course the fellows are expected to develop ideas on a final project which they will be working on, in close cooperation with a supervisor, during the latter (three months) part of the programme.

The FTP offers training in six area of specialization:

Not all of these lines are offered each year.

Fellows in 1999 visiting a family owned fish processing company that specializes in salted fish

Fisheries Policy and Planning

The aim of the specialist part is to provide the student with:
· solid understanding of the basic principles of a socially beneficial fisheries policy
· practical training in the design and implementation of such a policy.

At the end of this part of the course the student should be able to evaluate a given fisheries exploitation regime and roughly design and plan for the implementation of a successful fisheries policy for given fishery.


The main topics are:

A. Background
1. Elements of social welfare and cost-benefit analysis. Definitions and measures of social welfare and economic progress. Dynamics of economic growth. Costs and benefits of projects. The price system. True vs. false prices. Price corrections. Present values. Internal rates of return. Distribution (10 hours)
2. Fisheries and economic development: The role of fisheries in national and regional economic development, forward and backward linkages, source of investment capital, source of taxation revenue, foreign exchange earnings. Education, know-how, training of labour, generation of entrepreneurship etc. (10 hours)

B. Requirements and Options
1. What is needed for a successful fishery? Infrastructure, an appropriate fisheries management regime capital, manpower, know-how, market outlets and access, availability of inputs etc. (6 hours)
2. The fisheries management regime. Components and link. (2 hours)
3. Fisheries management systems. What are the options and the
properties of each. (10 hours)
4. Monitoring, control and surveillance. Requirements of the fisheries management systems. On land monitoring, at sea monitoring. Remote monitoring. Indirect monitoring. Enforcement of rules. Extent and costs of monitoring. Links with fisheries judicial system. (6 hours)
5. Fisheries judicial system. Processes and sanctions. The appropriate
balance between sanctions and monitoring. (6 hours)

C. Formulation of a fisheries policy & the design of a fisheries project
1. Economic potential of given fish resources: Potential physical sustainable and dynamic yield; unit value of harvest, export value. Is it a promising project? (2 hours)
2. The ability of the private sector. Are supports (education, training, technical assistance, investment financing, grants, infrastructure development etc.) needed and justified? (2 hours)
3. Assessment of existing administrative and monitoring capacity. (2 hours)
4. The design of an appropriate fisheries management regime. (4 hours)
5. The required administrative and advisory capacity. Design and costs.(4 hours)
6. Assessment of overall benefits. (4 hours)
7. Project Analysis, Planning and management (6 hours)
- Essential structure of projects
- The translation of policies into projects
-Iteration between projects and policies: The optimal project
8. Project design: Cases exercises (12 hours)

D. A Fisheries project: Implementation and operation of a Fisheries policy
1. The Policy and the Project (2 hours)
2. Political and social support (2 hour)
3. Manpower, training and other inputs (2 hours)
4. Infrastructure (2 hours)
5. Project revision and modification (2 hours)
6. Ongoing functions: Data collection, issue of directives, enforcement of rules, system revisions. (4 hours)
8. Evaluation, ongoing and ex post (2 hours)
9. Case studies. Real, constructed. Presentations and discussions (14 hours)

Marine and Inland-Waters Resources, Assessment and Monitoring

The objective is for the fellows to get an in-depth understanding of common stock assessment methods and their application. The course takes 5 weeks with lectures and practical sessions daily. The emphasis within the course depends on the background of the students which may vary from one year to the next.

In the first part sampling procedures and presentation and interpretation of biological characteristics of stocks are covered. This is followed by gear selectivity, survey design and data management.

The population dynamics of a fish stock are described by viewing the stock as a collection of cohorts. This leads to methods for calculating yield per recruit and estimating stock-recruitment curves and yield potential using various assumptions, leading to methods for
long- and short-term catch forecasts. The formulation of harvest control rules and their relationship to the precautionary approach is described, and the risk involved due to assessment errors and environmental fluctuations. The methodology is developed
simultaneously for different data scenarios, ranging from data-poor situations with e.g. survey length distributions and landings data through data-rich situations where the age composition of catches may be known. This is possible by separating carefully the model
description of population dynamics from the description of how the data relate to model outputs.

The entire content of the population dynamics part of the course are available as web pages on http://tutor-web.net.

Quality Management of Fish Handling and Processing

The training is intended for students who have an academic background in food science, biology, (bio) chemistry or related fields. It is also important that the student has prior experience with fish handling and processing.
Aim: To provide the student with a thorough understanding of the crucial role of quality and quality management in international trade of fishery commodities.

Main topics are:

· Sensory Evaluations
· Chemical Evaluation
· Microbial Evaluation

· Food safety and strategies for food safety assurance
· Cleaning and sanitation - safety of water and ice
· Laws and regulations

· Laws and regulations
· Quality assurance and world trade.
· Preliminary steps to develop a HACCP plan.
· Making process flow diagrams.
· Hazard analysis - principle 1
· Identifying critical control points - principle 2
· Estrablishing critical limits - principle 3
· Monitoring CCPs - principle 4
· Establishing corrective actions - principle 5
· Documentation of the HACCP system -principle 6
· Establishing verification procedures - principle 7: Auditiong
· Implementation of the HACCP plan
· Maintenance of the HACCP plan
· The HACCP system - a summary.

· Indtroduction to quality assurance systems for shrimp processing and round fish processing
· Salting and drying of fish
· Processing on-shore handling of wet fish, filleting, heading, skinning, fresh or frozen.
· Logistics and additives

Management of Fisheries Companies and Marketing

Fishing companies and fish processing companies operate in a complex economic and ecological environment. The management of fishing companies must deal with all the usual economic uncertainty as any other company, but in addition it must take into account a very complex ecological system which affects catch and quality of catch. Fish processing managers must deal with a highly perishable product, which is sold both on domestic and international markets. According to the FAO about 50% of all processed catch is sold through international trade so understanding of foreign trade and marketing is vital for any manager of a fishing company.

The specialist course on Management of Fisheries Companies and Marketing is aimed at training people to be able to become managers of a diverse fishing and fish processing companies.

The main objectives are:

1. To give an overview of the basic theory in corporate management and finance.

2. To provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the day-to-day operation of fishing enterprises, from harvesting of fish to marketing of seafood products.

3. To train students in using their own problem solving skills to find solutions to actual problems in operations of fishing enterprises.

The main topics are
Operation of fishing companies and aquaculture
a) Fishing and fishing technology
b) Aquaculture

Production and processing
a) Physical processes in processing of seafood products
b) Quality control and management
c) Product development and research

Business management
a) Finance theory
b) Accounting
c) Evaluation of financial statements

a) Human resource management
b) Strategic planning

a) Theory on marketing
b) Market research

Fishing Technology

The overall goal of the formal 5 week long course is to provide theoretical knowledge and practical training in fishing technology. A holistic view is taken of fishing technology. The act of fishing is viewed as the an integrated process where due consideration must be taken of the design and materials used to produce the fishing gear, the biology and behaviour of the fish being caught, the environmental conditions on the fishing grounds and the design and operation of the vessel used to deploy the gear and the equipment used to monitor the environment, fish concentrations and the fishing gear.

Main topics are:

1. Fishing gear design (10 days).
· Study of nets and ropes, the material used and their properties.
· The design of main types of fishing gear and their technical specifications
· Interpreting technical drawings, standards and basic calculations.
· Maintenance of fishing gear
· factors affecting the durability and longevity of gear
· recording maintenance history
· Computer assisted gear design
· Making models of gear and testing them.

2. Existing commercial fishing gear and fishing methods (2 days)
· General principles of fishing gear design
· Construction and application of main gear types

3. Naval architecture (3 days).
· Basic principles in vessel design

4. Fish finding and fishing gear monitoring devices (2 days).
· Fish finding equipment, design and operation
· Gear monitoring techniques

5. Fish behaviour and their reaction to fishing gear (3 days)
· Senses
· Swimming ability
· Reaction to different types of fishing gear

6. Gear selectivity and fishing gear research - (3 days).
· Factors affecting selectivity
· Estimating selectivity
· Estimating catchability
· Fish exclusion devices
· Research for the fishing gear of the future

7. Synthesis. A theory of hunting and future developments (1.5 days).
· The master fisherman
· how does he gather information, process it and make decisions
· his relationships with crew, management, authorities and researchers.

Sustainable Aquaculture

Course objectives:
The main objective of the course is to provide professionals in aquaculture with information and training with emphasis on planning, operation and development of aquaculture. The course will be based on principles rather than being species specific. Sustainability and environmental issues will be integrated into all topics. The fellows will gain sound knowledge on how to evaluate and identify the appropriate aquaculture operations for any particular environment, both in terms of suitable species, site selection and infrastructure. Fellows will gain insight into the operational management of farms, both financially and technically.

Course design and methods of teaching:
The fellows will attend 3-4 lectures most mornings. During the afternoon they will be engaged in work on various projects and assignments to reinforce material addressed in lectures. The fellows will receive supervision in handling various tools used in management of fish farms and methods for research and development in aquaculture. An important part of the course will be visits to fish farms as well as monitoring and support structures for the aquaculture industry.

Organization of the course
The course consists of the following modules that are taught in sequence:
1. Biology and physiology of aquaculture organisms
2. The environment of the aquaculture organisms
3. Production methods and operational environment for aquaculture
4. Farm design
5. Project design and proposal writing
6. Farm operation and production planning
7. Environmental impact of aquaculture production
8. Legal framework and monitoring of aquaculture operations
9. Developing aquaculture for the future

Learning outcomes
Below are outlined the main learning outcomes of the course.

  • Fellows are familiar with the main production methods used in aquaculture and the necessary operational environment of aquaculture.
  • Fellows are familiar with the basic principles of farm design
  • Fellows can identify suitable locations and species for aquaculture
  • Fellows can determine the feasibility of new aquaculture operations.
  • Fellows know the critical steps in developing methods for a new species in aquaculture
  • Fellows are familiar with production planning and best management practices for developing viable aquaculture operations.
  • Fellows are aware of the main environmental impacts of aquaculture and considerations for future sustainable development of the industry
  • Fellows are aware of the necessary legal framework and support structures for the aquaculture industry in each country